FakeLocator: Robust Localization of GAN-Based Face Manipulations

Full face synthesis and partial face manipulation by virtue of the generative adversarial networks (GANs) and its variants have raised wide public concerns. In the multi-media forensics area, detecting and ultimately locating the image forgery has become an imperative task. In this work, we investigate the architecture of existing GAN-based face manipulation methods and observe that the imperfection of upsampling methods therewithin could be served as an important asset for GAN-synthesized fake image detection and forgery localization. Based on this basic observation, we have proposed a novel approach, termed FakeLocator, to obtain high localization accuracy, at full resolution, on manipulated facial images. To the best of our knowledge, this is the very first attempt to solve the GAN-based fake localization problem with a gray-scale fakeness map that preserves more information of fake regions. To improve the universality of FakeLocator across multifarious facial attributes, we introduce an attention mechanism to guide the training of the model. To improve the universality of FakeLocator across different DeepFake methods, we propose partial data augmentation and single sample clustering on the training images. Experimental results on popular FaceForensics++, DFFD datasets and seven different state-of-the-art GAN-based face generation methods have shown the effectiveness of our method. Compared with the baselines, our method performs better on various metrics. Moreover, the proposed method is robust against various real-world facial image degradations such as JPEG compression, low-resolution, noise, and blur.

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