GLaRA: Graph-based Labeling Rule Augmentation for Weakly Supervised Named Entity Recognition

EACL 2021  ·  Xinyan Zhao, Haibo Ding, Zhe Feng ·

Instead of using expensive manual annotations, researchers have proposed to train named entity recognition (NER) systems using heuristic labeling rules. However, devising labeling rules is challenging because it often requires a considerable amount of manual effort and domain expertise. To alleviate this problem, we propose \textsc{GLaRA}, a graph-based labeling rule augmentation framework, to learn new labeling rules from unlabeled data. We first create a graph with nodes representing candidate rules extracted from unlabeled data. Then, we design a new graph neural network to augment labeling rules by exploring the semantic relations between rules. We finally apply the augmented rules on unlabeled data to generate weak labels and train a NER model using the weakly labeled data. We evaluate our method on three NER datasets and find that we can achieve an average improvement of +20\% F1 score over the best baseline when given a small set of seed rules.

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