Graph Learning under Distribution Shifts: A Comprehensive Survey on Domain Adaptation, Out-of-distribution, and Continual Learning

26 Feb 2024  ·  Man Wu, Xin Zheng, Qin Zhang, Xiao Shen, Xiong Luo, Xingquan Zhu, Shirui Pan ·

Graph learning plays a pivotal role and has gained significant attention in various application scenarios, from social network analysis to recommendation systems, for its effectiveness in modeling complex data relations represented by graph structural data. In reality, the real-world graph data typically show dynamics over time, with changing node attributes and edge structure, leading to the severe graph data distribution shift issue. This issue is compounded by the diverse and complex nature of distribution shifts, which can significantly impact the performance of graph learning methods in degraded generalization and adaptation capabilities, posing a substantial challenge to their effectiveness. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive review and summary of the latest approaches, strategies, and insights that address distribution shifts within the context of graph learning. Concretely, according to the observability of distributions in the inference stage and the availability of sufficient supervision information in the training stage, we categorize existing graph learning methods into several essential scenarios, including graph domain adaptation learning, graph out-of-distribution learning, and graph continual learning. For each scenario, a detailed taxonomy is proposed, with specific descriptions and discussions of existing progress made in distribution-shifted graph learning. Additionally, we discuss the potential applications and future directions for graph learning under distribution shifts with a systematic analysis of the current state in this field. The survey is positioned to provide general guidance for the development of effective graph learning algorithms in handling graph distribution shifts, and to stimulate future research and advancements in this area.

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