HAMLET: Interpretable Human And Machine co-LEarning Technique

Efficient label acquisition processes are key to obtaining robust classifiers. However, data labeling is often challenging and subject to high levels of label noise. This can arise even when classification targets are well defined, if instances to be labeled are more difficult than the prototypes used to define the class, leading to disagreements among the expert community. Here, we enable efficient training of deep neural networks. From low-confidence labels, we iteratively improve their quality by simultaneous learning of machines and experts. We call it Human And Machine co-LEarning Technique (HAMLET). Throughout the process, experts become more consistent, while the algorithm provides them with explainable feedback for confirmation. HAMLET uses a neural embedding function and a memory module filled with diverse reference embeddings from different classes. Its output includes classification labels and highly relevant reference embeddings as explanation. We took the study of brain monitoring at intensive care unit (ICU) as an application of HAMLET on continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) data. Although cEEG monitoring yields large volumes of data, labeling costs and difficulty make it hard to build a classifier. Additionally, while experts agree on the labels of clear-cut examples of cEEG patterns, labeling many real-world cEEG data can be extremely challenging. Thus, a large minority of sequences might be mislabeled. HAMLET has shown significant performance gain against deep learning and other baselines, increasing accuracy from 7.03% to 68.75% on challenging inputs. Besides improved performance, clinical experts confirmed the interpretability of those reference embeddings in helping explaining the classification results by HAMLET.

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