Individualized Risk Prognosis for Critical Care Patients: A Multi-task Gaussian Process Model

22 May 2017  ·  Ahmed M. Alaa, Jinsung Yoon, Scott Hu, Mihaela van der Schaar ·

We report the development and validation of a data-driven real-time risk score that provides timely assessments for the clinical acuity of ward patients based on their temporal lab tests and vital signs, which allows for timely intensive care unit (ICU) admissions. Unlike the existing risk scoring technologies, the proposed score is individualized; it uses the electronic health record (EHR) data to cluster the patients based on their static covariates into subcohorts of similar patients, and then learns a separate temporal, non-stationary multi-task Gaussian Process (GP) model that captures the physiology of every subcohort. Experiments conducted on data from a heterogeneous cohort of 6,094 patients admitted to the Ronald Reagan UCLA medical center show that our risk score significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art risk scoring technologies, such as the Rothman index and MEWS, in terms of timeliness, true positive rate (TPR), and positive predictive value (PPV). In particular, the proposed score increases the AUC with 20% and 38% as compared to Rothman index and MEWS respectively, and can predict ICU admissions 8 hours before clinicians at a PPV of 35% and a TPR of 50%. Moreover, we show that the proposed risk score allows for better decisions on when to discharge clinically stable patients from the ward, thereby improving the efficiency of hospital resource utilization.

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