Instant Graph Neural Networks for Dynamic Graphs

3 Jun 2022  ·  Yanping Zheng, Hanzhi Wang, Zhewei Wei, Jiajun Liu, Sibo Wang ·

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have been widely used for modeling graph-structured data. With the development of numerous GNN variants, recent years have witnessed groundbreaking results in improving the scalability of GNNs to work on static graphs with millions of nodes. However, how to instantly represent continuous changes of large-scale dynamic graphs with GNNs is still an open problem. Existing dynamic GNNs focus on modeling the periodic evolution of graphs, often on a snapshot basis. Such methods suffer from two drawbacks: first, there is a substantial delay for the changes in the graph to be reflected in the graph representations, resulting in losses on the model's accuracy; second, repeatedly calculating the representation matrix on the entire graph in each snapshot is predominantly time-consuming and severely limits the scalability. In this paper, we propose Instant Graph Neural Network (InstantGNN), an incremental computation approach for the graph representation matrix of dynamic graphs. Set to work with dynamic graphs with the edge-arrival model, our method avoids time-consuming, repetitive computations and allows instant updates on the representation and instant predictions. Graphs with dynamic structures and dynamic attributes are both supported. The upper bounds of time complexity of those updates are also provided. Furthermore, our method provides an adaptive training strategy, which guides the model to retrain at moments when it can make the greatest performance gains. We conduct extensive experiments on several real-world and synthetic datasets. Empirical results demonstrate that our model achieves state-of-the-art accuracy while having orders-of-magnitude higher efficiency than existing methods.

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