k-Mixup Regularization for Deep Learning via Optimal Transport

5 Jun 2021  ·  Kristjan Greenewald, Anming Gu, Mikhail Yurochkin, Justin Solomon, Edward Chien ·

Mixup is a popular regularization technique for training deep neural networks that improves generalization and increases robustness to certain distribution shifts. It perturbs input training data in the direction of other randomly-chosen instances in the training set. To better leverage the structure of the data, we extend mixup in a simple, broadly applicable way to \emph{$k$-mixup}, which perturbs $k$-batches of training points in the direction of other $k$-batches. The perturbation is done with displacement interpolation, i.e. interpolation under the Wasserstein metric. We demonstrate theoretically and in simulations that $k$-mixup preserves cluster and manifold structures, and we extend theory studying the efficacy of standard mixup to the $k$-mixup case. Our empirical results show that training with $k$-mixup further improves generalization and robustness across several network architectures and benchmark datasets of differing modalities. For the wide variety of real datasets considered, the performance gains of $k$-mixup over standard mixup are similar to or larger than the gains of mixup itself over standard ERM after hyperparameter optimization. In several instances, in fact, $k$-mixup achieves gains in settings where standard mixup has negligible to zero improvement over ERM.

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