NoiseCAM: Explainable AI for the Boundary Between Noise and Adversarial Attacks

Deep Learning (DL) and Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are widely used in various domains. However, adversarial attacks can easily mislead a neural network and lead to wrong decisions. Defense mechanisms are highly preferred in safety-critical applications. In this paper, firstly, we use the gradient class activation map (GradCAM) to analyze the behavior deviation of the VGG-16 network when its inputs are mixed with adversarial perturbation or Gaussian noise. In particular, our method can locate vulnerable layers that are sensitive to adversarial perturbation and Gaussian noise. We also show that the behavior deviation of vulnerable layers can be used to detect adversarial examples. Secondly, we propose a novel NoiseCAM algorithm that integrates information from globally and pixel-level weighted class activation maps. Our algorithm is susceptible to adversarial perturbations and will not respond to Gaussian random noise mixed in the inputs. Third, we compare detecting adversarial examples using both behavior deviation and NoiseCAM, and we show that NoiseCAM outperforms behavior deviation modeling in its overall performance. Our work could provide a useful tool to defend against certain adversarial attacks on deep neural networks.

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