On a computationally-scalable sparse formulation of the multidimensional and non-stationary maximum entropy principle

7 May 2020  ·  Horenko Illia, Marchenko Ganna, Gagliardini Patrick ·

Data-driven modelling and computational predictions based on maximum entropy principle (MaxEnt-principle) aim at finding as-simple-as-possible - but not simpler then necessary - models that allow to avoid the data overfitting problem. We derive a multivariate non-parametric and non-stationary formulation of the MaxEnt-principle and show that its solution can be approximated through a numerical maximisation of the sparse constrained optimization problem with regularization. Application of the resulting algorithm to popular financial benchmarks reveals memoryless models allowing for simple and qualitative descriptions of the major stock market indexes data. We compare the obtained MaxEnt-models to the heteroschedastic models from the computational econometrics (GARCH, GARCH-GJR, MS-GARCH, GARCH-PML4) in terms of the model fit, complexity and prediction quality. We compare the resulting model log-likelihoods, the values of the Bayesian Information Criterion, posterior model probabilities, the quality of the data autocorrelation function fits as well as the Value-at-Risk prediction quality. We show that all of the considered seven major financial benchmark time series (DJI, SPX, FTSE, STOXX, SMI, HSI and N225) are better described by conditionally memoryless MaxEnt-models with nonstationary regime-switching than by the common econometric models with finite memory. This analysis also reveals a sparse network of statistically-significant temporal relations for the positive and negative latent variance changes among different markets. The code is provided for open access.

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