Dense subgraph discovery aims to find a dense component in edge-weighted graphs. This is a fundamental graph-mining task with a variety of applications and thus has received much attention recently. Although most existing methods assume that each individual edge weight is easily obtained, such an assumption is not necessarily valid in practice. In this paper, we introduce a novel learning problem for dense subgraph discovery in which a learner queries edge subsets rather than only single edges and observes a noisy sum of edge weights in a queried subset. For this problem, we first propose a polynomial-time algorithm that obtains a nearly-optimal solution with high probability. Moreover, to deal with large-sized graphs, we design a more scalable algorithm with a theoretical guarantee. Computational experiments using real-world graphs demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithms.