Optimized Algorithms to Sample Determinantal Point Processes

23 Feb 2018  ·  Nicolas Tremblay, Simon Barthelme, Pierre-Olivier Amblard ·

In this technical report, we discuss several sampling algorithms for Determinantal Point Processes (DPP). DPPs have recently gained a broad interest in the machine learning and statistics literature as random point processes with negative correlation, i.e., ones that can generate a "diverse" sample from a set of items... They are parametrized by a matrix $\mathbf{L}$, called $L$-ensemble, that encodes the correlations between items. The standard sampling algorithm is separated in three phases: 1/~eigendecomposition of $\mathbf{L}$, 2/~an eigenvector sampling phase where $\mathbf{L}$'s eigenvectors are sampled independently via a Bernoulli variable parametrized by their associated eigenvalue, 3/~a Gram-Schmidt-type orthogonalisation procedure of the sampled eigenvectors. In a naive implementation, the computational cost of the third step is on average $\mathcal{O}(N\mu^3)$ where $\mu$ is the average number of samples of the DPP. We give an algorithm which runs in $\mathcal{O}(N\mu^2)$ and is extremely simple to implement. If memory is a constraint, we also describe a dual variant with reduced memory costs. In addition, we discuss implementation details often missing in the literature. read more

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