Quantum Inception Score

20 Nov 2023  ·  Akira Sone, Akira Tanji, Naoki Yamamoto ·

Motivated by the great success of classical generative models in machine learning, enthusiastic exploration of their quantum version has recently started. To depart on this journey, it is important to develop a relevant metric to evaluate the quality of quantum generative models; in the classical case, one such example is the (classical) inception score (cIS). In this paper, as a natural extension of cIS, we propose the quantum inception score (qIS) for quantum generators. Importantly, qIS relates the quality to the Holevo information of the quantum channel that classifies a given dataset. In this context, we show several properties of qIS. First, qIS is greater than or equal to the corresponding cIS, which is defined through projection measurements on the system output. Second, the difference between qIS and cIS arises from the presence of quantum coherence, as characterized by the resource theory of asymmetry. Third, when a set of entangled generators is prepared, there exists a classifying process leading to the further enhancement of qIS. Fourth, we harness the quantum fluctuation theorem to characterize the physical limitation of qIS. Finally, we apply qIS to assess the quality of the one-dimensional spin chain model as a quantum generative model, with the quantum convolutional neural network as a quantum classifier, for the phase classification problem in the quantum many-body physics.

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