Recently, increased computational power and data availability, as well as
algorithmic advances, have led machine learning techniques to impressive
results in regression, classification, data-generation and reinforcement
learning tasks. Despite these successes, the proximity to the physical limits
of chip fabrication alongside the increasing size of datasets are motivating a
growing number of researchers to explore the possibility of harnessing the
power of quantum computation to speed-up classical machine learning algorithms.
Here we review the literature in quantum machine learning and discuss
perspectives for a mixed readership of classical machine learning and quantum
computation experts. Particular emphasis will be placed on clarifying the
limitations of quantum algorithms, how they compare with their best classical
counterparts and why quantum resources are expected to provide advantages for
learning problems. Learning in the presence of noise and certain
computationally hard problems in machine learning are identified as promising
directions for the field. Practical questions, like how to upload classical
data into quantum form, will also be addressed.