Real-time Non-line-of-Sight imaging of dynamic scenes

24 Oct 2020  ·  Ji Hyun Nam, Eric Brandt, Sebastian Bauer, Xiaochun Liu, Eftychios Sifakis, Andreas Velten ·

Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) imaging aims at recovering the 3D geometry of objects that are hidden from the direct line of sight. In the past, this method has suffered from the weak available multibounce signal limiting scene size, capture speed, and reconstruction quality. While algorithms capable of reconstructing scenes at several frames per second have been demonstrated, real-time NLOS video has only been demonstrated for retro-reflective objects where the NLOS signal strength is enhanced by 4 orders of magnitude or more. Furthermore, it has also been noted that the signal-to-noise ratio of reconstructions in NLOS methods drops quickly with distance and past reconstructions, therefore, have been limited to small scenes with depths of few meters. Actual models of noise and resolution in the scene have been simplistic, ignoring many of the complexities of the problem. We show that SPAD (Single-Photon Avalanche Diode) array detectors with a total of just 28 pixels combined with a specifically extended Phasor Field reconstruction algorithm can reconstruct live real-time videos of non-retro-reflective NLOS scenes. We provide an analysis of the Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) of our reconstructions and show that for our method it is possible to reconstruct the scene such that SNR, motion blur, angular resolution, and depth resolution are all independent of scene size suggesting that reconstruction of very large scenes may be possible. In the future, the light efficiency for NLOS imaging systems can be improved further by adding more pixels to the sensor array.

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