Spacing Loss for Discovering Novel Categories

Novel Class Discovery (NCD) is a learning paradigm, where a machine learning model is tasked to semantically group instances from unlabeled data, by utilizing labeled instances from a disjoint set of classes. In this work, we first characterize existing NCD approaches into single-stage and two-stage methods based on whether they require access to labeled and unlabeled data together while discovering new classes. Next, we devise a simple yet powerful loss function that enforces separability in the latent space using cues from multi-dimensional scaling, which we refer to as Spacing Loss. Our proposed formulation can either operate as a standalone method or can be plugged into existing methods to enhance them. We validate the efficacy of Spacing Loss with thorough experimental evaluation across multiple settings on CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 datasets.

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