Learning Graph Patterns of Reflection Coefficient for Non-destructive Diagnosis of Cu Interconnects

20 Apr 2023  ·  Tae Yeob Kang, Haebom Lee, Sungho Suh ·

With the increasing operating frequencies and clock speeds in processors, interconnects affect both the reliability and performance of entire electronic systems. Fault detection and diagnosis of the interconnects are crucial for prognostics and health management (PHM) of electronics. However, traditional approaches using electrical signals as prognostic factors often face challenges in distinguishing defect root causes, necessitating additional destructive evaluations, and are prone to noise interference, leading to potential false alarms. To address these limitations, this paper introduces a novel approach for non-destructive detection and diagnosis of defects in Cu interconnects, offering early detection, enhanced diagnostic accuracy, and noise resilience. Our approach uniquely analyzes both the root cause and severity of interconnect defects by leveraging graph patterns of reflection coefficient, a technique distinct from traditional time series signal analysis. We experimentally demonstrate that the graph patterns possess the capability for fault diagnosis and serve as effective input data for learning algorithms. Additionally, we introduce a novel severity rating ensemble learning (SREL) approach, which significantly enhances diagnostic accuracy and noise robustness. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms conventional machine learning methods and multi-class convolutional neural networks (CNN), achieving a maximum accuracy of 99.3%, especially under elevated noise levels.

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