Suppressing the endemic equilibrium in SIS epidemics: A state dependent approach

31 May 2021  ·  YuAn Wang, Sebin Gracy, Hideaki Ishii, Karl Henrik Johansson ·

This paper considers the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic model with an underlying network structure among subpopulations and focuses on the effect of social distancing to regulate the epidemic level. We demonstrate that if each subpopulation is informed of its infection rate and reduces interactions accordingly, the fraction of the subpopulation infected can remain below half for all time instants. To this end, we first modify the basic SIS model by introducing a state dependent parameter representing the frequency of interactions between subpopulations. Thereafter, we show that for this modified SIS model, the spectral radius of a suitably-defined matrix being not greater than one causes all the agents, regardless of their initial sickness levels, to converge to the healthy state; assuming non-trivial disease spread, the spectral radius being greater than one leads to the existence of a unique endemic equilibrium, which is also asymptotically stable. Finally, by leveraging the aforementioned results, we show that the fraction of (sub)populations infected never exceeds half.

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