Temporal Smoothness Regularisers for Neural Link Predictors

16 Sep 2023  ·  Manuel Dileo, Pasquale Minervini, Matteo Zignani, Sabrina Gaito ·

Most algorithms for representation learning and link prediction on relational data are designed for static data. However, the data to which they are applied typically evolves over time, including online social networks or interactions between users and items in recommender systems. This is also the case for graph-structured knowledge bases -- knowledge graphs -- which contain facts that are valid only for specific points in time. In such contexts, it becomes crucial to correctly identify missing links at a precise time point, i.e. the temporal prediction link task. Recently, Lacroix et al. and Sadeghian et al. proposed a solution to the problem of link prediction for knowledge graphs under temporal constraints inspired by the canonical decomposition of 4-order tensors, where they regularise the representations of time steps by enforcing temporal smoothing, i.e. by learning similar transformation for adjacent timestamps. However, the impact of the choice of temporal regularisation terms is still poorly understood. In this work, we systematically analyse several choices of temporal smoothing regularisers using linear functions and recurrent architectures. In our experiments, we show that by carefully selecting the temporal smoothing regulariser and regularisation weight, a simple method like TNTComplEx can produce significantly more accurate results than state-of-the-art methods on three widely used temporal link prediction datasets. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of a wide range of temporal smoothing regularisers on two state-of-the-art temporal link prediction models. Our work shows that simple tensor factorisation models can produce new state-of-the-art results using newly proposed temporal regularisers, highlighting a promising avenue for future research.

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