Why We Need New Evaluation Metrics for NLG

The majority of NLG evaluation relies on automatic metrics, such as BLEU . In this paper, we motivate the need for novel, system- and data-independent automatic evaluation methods: We investigate a wide range of metrics, including state-of-the-art word-based and novel grammar-based ones, and demonstrate that they only weakly reflect human judgements of system outputs as generated by data-driven, end-to-end NLG. We also show that metric performance is data- and system-specific. Nevertheless, our results also suggest that automatic metrics perform reliably at system-level and can support system development by finding cases where a system performs poorly.

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