Impedance models of power systems are useful when state-space models of apparatus such as inverter-based resources (IBRs) have not been made available and instead only black-box impedance models are available.
Power electronic converters for integrating renewable energy resources into power systems can be divided into grid-forming and grid-following inverters.
The SG-dominated grid is traditionally analyzed in a mechanical-centric view which ignores fast electrical dynamics and focuses on the torque-speed dynamics.
The large-scale integration of converter-interfaced resources in electrical power systems raises new threats to stability which call for a new theoretic framework for modelling and analysis.
This paper develops a grey-box approach to small-signal stability analysis of complex power systems that facilitates root-cause tracing without requiring disclosure of the full details of the internal control structure of apparatus connected to the system.