Recent work has shown that the end-to-end approach using convolutional neural network (CNN) is effective in various types of machine learning tasks. For audio signals, the approach takes raw waveforms as input using an 1-D convolution layer.
Recently deep learning based recommendation systems have been actively explored to solve the cold-start problem using a hybrid approach. However, the majority of previous studies proposed a hybrid model where collaborative filtering and content-based filtering modules are independently trained.
Feature learning and deep learning have drawn great attention in recent years as a way of transforming input data into more effective representations using learning algorithms. Such interest has grown in the area of music information retrieval (MIR) as well, particularly in music audio classification tasks such as auto-tagging.