Are Labels Always Necessary for Classifier Accuracy Evaluation?

CVPR 2021  ·  Weijian Deng, Liang Zheng ·

To calculate the model accuracy on a computer vision task, e.g., object recognition, we usually require a test set composing of test samples and their ground truth labels. Whilst standard usage cases satisfy this requirement, many real-world scenarios involve unlabeled test data, rendering common model evaluation methods infeasible. We investigate this important and under-explored problem, Automatic model Evaluation (AutoEval). Specifically, given a labeled training set and a classifier, we aim to estimate the classification accuracy on unlabeled test datasets. We construct a meta-dataset: a dataset comprised of datasets generated from the original images via various transformations such as rotation, background substitution, foreground scaling, etc. As the classification accuracy of the model on each sample (dataset) is known from the original dataset labels, our task can be solved via regression. Using the feature statistics to represent the distribution of a sample dataset, we can train regression models (e.g., a regression neural network) to predict model performance. Using synthetic meta-dataset and real-world datasets in training and testing, respectively, we report a reasonable and promising prediction of the model accuracy. We also provide insights into the application scope, limitation, and potential future direction of AutoEval.

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