Are you Struggling? Dataset and Baselines for Struggle Determination in Assembly Videos

Determining when people are struggling from video enables a finer-grained understanding of actions and opens opportunities for building intelligent support visual interfaces. In this paper, we present a new dataset with three assembly activities and corresponding performance baselines for the determination of struggle from video. Three real-world problem-solving activities including assembling plumbing pipes (Pipes-Struggle), pitching camping tents (Tent-Struggle) and solving the Tower of Hanoi puzzle (Tower-Struggle) are introduced. Video segments were scored w.r.t. the level of struggle as perceived by annotators using a forced choice 4-point scale. Each video segment was annotated by a single expert annotator in addition to crowd-sourced annotations. The dataset is the first struggle annotation dataset and contains 5.1 hours of video and 725,100 frames from 73 participants in total. We evaluate three decision-making tasks: struggle classification, struggle level regression, and struggle label distribution learning. We provide baseline results for each of the tasks utilising several mainstream deep neural networks, along with an ablation study and visualisation of results. Our work is motivated toward assistive systems that analyze struggle, support users during manual activities and encourage learning, as well as other video understanding competencies.

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