Generalized domain adaptation framework for parametric back-end in speaker recognition

24 May 2023  ·  Qiongqiong Wang, Koji Okabe, Kong Aik Lee, Takafumi Koshinaka ·

State-of-the-art speaker recognition systems comprise a speaker embedding front-end followed by a probabilistic linear discriminant analysis (PLDA) back-end. The effectiveness of these components relies on the availability of a large amount of labeled training data. In practice, it is common for domains (e.g., language, channel, demographic) in which a system is deployed to differ from that in which a system has been trained. To close the resulting gap, domain adaptation is often essential for PLDA models. Among two of its variants are Heavy-tailed PLDA (HT-PLDA) and Gaussian PLDA (G-PLDA). Though the former better fits real feature spaces than does the latter, its popularity has been severely limited by its computational complexity and, especially, by the difficulty, it presents in domain adaptation, which results from its non-Gaussian property. Various domain adaptation methods have been proposed for G-PLDA. This paper proposes a generalized framework for domain adaptation that can be applied to both of the above variants of PLDA for speaker recognition. It not only includes several existing supervised and unsupervised domain adaptation methods but also makes possible more flexible usage of available data in different domains. In particular, we introduce here two new techniques: (1) correlation-alignment in the model level, and (2) covariance regularization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proposed application of such techniques for domain adaptation w.r.t. HT-PLDA. The efficacy of the proposed techniques has been experimentally validated on NIST 2016, 2018, and 2019 Speaker Recognition Evaluation (SRE'16, SRE'18, and SRE'19) datasets.

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