Identifying Layers Susceptible to Adversarial Attacks

10 Jul 2021  ·  Shoaib Ahmed Siddiqui, Thomas Breuel ·

In this paper, we investigate the use of pretraining with adversarial networks, with the objective of discovering the relationship between network depth and robustness. For this purpose, we selectively retrain different portions of VGG and ResNet architectures on CIFAR-10, Imagenette, and ImageNet using non-adversarial and adversarial data. Experimental results show that susceptibility to adversarial samples is associated with low-level feature extraction layers. Therefore, retraining of high-level layers is insufficient for achieving robustness. Furthermore, adversarial attacks yield outputs from early layers that differ statistically from features for non-adversarial samples and do not permit consistent classification by subsequent layers. This supports common hypotheses regarding the association of robustness with the feature extractor, insufficiency of deeper layers in providing robustness, and large differences in adversarial and non-adversarial feature vectors.

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