Improving Continuous Sign Language Recognition with Consistency Constraints and Signer Removal

26 Dec 2022  ·  Ronglai Zuo, Brian Mak ·

Most deep-learning-based continuous sign language recognition (CSLR) models share a similar backbone consisting of a visual module, a sequential module, and an alignment module. However, due to limited training samples, a connectionist temporal classification loss may not train such CSLR backbones sufficiently. In this work, we propose three auxiliary tasks to enhance the CSLR backbones. The first task enhances the visual module, which is sensitive to the insufficient training problem, from the perspective of consistency. Specifically, since the information of sign languages is mainly included in signers' facial expressions and hand movements, a keypoint-guided spatial attention module is developed to enforce the visual module to focus on informative regions, i.e., spatial attention consistency. Second, noticing that both the output features of the visual and sequential modules represent the same sentence, to better exploit the backbone's power, a sentence embedding consistency constraint is imposed between the visual and sequential modules to enhance the representation power of both features. We name the CSLR model trained with the above auxiliary tasks as consistency-enhanced CSLR, which performs well on signer-dependent datasets in which all signers appear during both training and testing. To make it more robust for the signer-independent setting, a signer removal module based on feature disentanglement is further proposed to remove signer information from the backbone. Extensive ablation studies are conducted to validate the effectiveness of these auxiliary tasks. More remarkably, with a transformer-based backbone, our model achieves state-of-the-art or competitive performance on five benchmarks, PHOENIX-2014, PHOENIX-2014-T, PHOENIX-2014-SI, CSL, and CSL-Daily. Code and Models are available at

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Task Dataset Model Metric Name Metric Value Global Rank Result Benchmark
Sign Language Recognition CSL-Daily C2SLR Word Error Rate (WER) 31.0 # 7