Instructive artificial intelligence (AI) for human training, assistance, and explainability

2 Nov 2021  ·  Nicholas Kantack, Nina Cohen, Nathan Bos, Corey Lowman, James Everett, Timothy Endres ·

We propose a novel approach to explainable AI (XAI) based on the concept of "instruction" from neural networks. In this case study, we demonstrate how a superhuman neural network might instruct human trainees as an alternative to traditional approaches to XAI. Specifically, an AI examines human actions and calculates variations on the human strategy that lead to better performance. Experiments with a JHU/APL-developed AI player for the cooperative card game Hanabi suggest this technique makes unique contributions to explainability while improving human performance. One area of focus for Instructive AI is in the significant discrepancies that can arise between a human's actual strategy and the strategy they profess to use. This inaccurate self-assessment presents a barrier for XAI, since explanations of an AI's strategy may not be properly understood or implemented by human recipients. We have developed and are testing a novel, Instructive AI approach that estimates human strategy by observing human actions. With neural networks, this allows a direct calculation of the changes in weights needed to improve the human strategy to better emulate a more successful AI. Subjected to constraints (e.g. sparsity) these weight changes can be interpreted as recommended changes to human strategy (e.g. "value A more, and value B less"). Instruction from AI such as this functions both to help humans perform better at tasks, but also to better understand, anticipate, and correct the actions of an AI. Results will be presented on AI instruction's ability to improve human decision-making and human-AI teaming in Hanabi.

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