Learning Neural Eigenfunctions for Unsupervised Semantic Segmentation

ICCV 2023  ·  Zhijie Deng, Yucen Luo ·

Unsupervised semantic segmentation is a long-standing challenge in computer vision with great significance. Spectral clustering is a theoretically grounded solution to it where the spectral embeddings for pixels are computed to construct distinct clusters. Despite recent progress in enhancing spectral clustering with powerful pre-trained models, current approaches still suffer from inefficiencies in spectral decomposition and inflexibility in applying them to the test data. This work addresses these issues by casting spectral clustering as a parametric approach that employs neural network-based eigenfunctions to produce spectral embeddings. The outputs of the neural eigenfunctions are further restricted to discrete vectors that indicate clustering assignments directly. As a result, an end-to-end NN-based paradigm of spectral clustering emerges. In practice, the neural eigenfunctions are lightweight and take the features from pre-trained models as inputs, improving training efficiency and unleashing the potential of pre-trained models for dense prediction. We conduct extensive empirical studies to validate the effectiveness of our approach and observe significant performance gains over competitive baselines on Pascal Context, Cityscapes, and ADE20K benchmarks.

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