Learning Point-wise Abstaining Penalty for Point Cloud Anomaly Detection

LiDAR-based semantic scene understanding is an important module in the modern autonomous driving perception stack. However, identifying Out-Of-Distribution (OOD) points in a LiDAR point cloud is challenging as point clouds lack semantically rich features when compared with RGB images. We revisit this problem from the perspective of selective classification, which introduces a selective function into the standard closed-set classification setup. Our solution is built upon the basic idea of abstaining from choosing any known categories but learns a point-wise abstaining penalty with a marginbased loss. Synthesizing outliers to approximate unlimited OOD samples is also critical to this idea, so we propose a strong synthesis pipeline that generates outliers originated from various factors: unrealistic object categories, sampling patterns and sizes. We demonstrate that learning different abstaining penalties, apart from point-wise penalty, for different types of (synthesized) outliers can further improve the performance. We benchmark our method on SemanticKITTI and nuScenes and achieve state-of-the-art results. Risk-coverage analysis further reveals intrinsic properties of different methods. Codes and models will be publicly available.

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