Machine Learning for the Detection and Identification of Internet of Things (IoT) Devices: A Survey

25 Jan 2021  ·  Yongxin Liu, Jian Wang, Jianqiang Li, Shuteng Niu, Houbing Song ·

The Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming an indispensable part of everyday life, enabling a variety of emerging services and applications. However, the presence of rogue IoT devices has exposed the IoT to untold risks with severe consequences. The first step in securing the IoT is detecting rogue IoT devices and identifying legitimate ones. Conventional approaches use cryptographic mechanisms to authenticate and verify legitimate devices' identities. However, cryptographic protocols are not available in many systems. Meanwhile, these methods are less effective when legitimate devices can be exploited or encryption keys are disclosed. Therefore, non-cryptographic IoT device identification and rogue device detection become efficient solutions to secure existing systems and will provide additional protection to systems with cryptographic protocols. Non-cryptographic approaches require more effort and are not yet adequately investigated. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive survey on machine learning technologies for the identification of IoT devices along with the detection of compromised or falsified ones from the viewpoint of passive surveillance agents or network operators. We classify the IoT device identification and detection into four categories: device-specific pattern recognition, Deep Learning enabled device identification, unsupervised device identification, and abnormal device detection. Meanwhile, we discuss various ML-related enabling technologies for this purpose. These enabling technologies include learning algorithms, feature engineering on network traffic traces and wireless signals, continual learning, and abnormality detection.

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