PhantomSound: Black-Box, Query-Efficient Audio Adversarial Attack via Split-Second Phoneme Injection

13 Sep 2023  ·  Hanqing Guo, Guangjing Wang, Yuanda Wang, Bocheng Chen, Qiben Yan, Li Xiao ·

In this paper, we propose PhantomSound, a query-efficient black-box attack toward voice assistants. Existing black-box adversarial attacks on voice assistants either apply substitution models or leverage the intermediate model output to estimate the gradients for crafting adversarial audio samples. However, these attack approaches require a significant amount of queries with a lengthy training stage. PhantomSound leverages the decision-based attack to produce effective adversarial audios, and reduces the number of queries by optimizing the gradient estimation. In the experiments, we perform our attack against 4 different speech-to-text APIs under 3 real-world scenarios to demonstrate the real-time attack impact. The results show that PhantomSound is practical and robust in attacking 5 popular commercial voice controllable devices over the air, and is able to bypass 3 liveness detection mechanisms with >95% success rate. The benchmark result shows that PhantomSound can generate adversarial examples and launch the attack in a few minutes. We significantly enhance the query efficiency and reduce the cost of a successful untargeted and targeted adversarial attack by 93.1% and 65.5% compared with the state-of-the-art black-box attacks, using merely ~300 queries (~5 minutes) and ~1,500 queries (~25 minutes), respectively.

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