Pseudo-IoU: Improving Label Assignment in Anchor-Free Object Detection

29 Apr 2021  ·  Jiachen Li, Bowen Cheng, Rogerio Feris, JinJun Xiong, Thomas S. Huang, Wen-mei Hwu, Humphrey Shi ·

Current anchor-free object detectors are quite simple and effective yet lack accurate label assignment methods, which limits their potential in competing with classic anchor-based models that are supported by well-designed assignment methods based on the Intersection-over-Union~(IoU) metric. In this paper, we present \textbf{Pseudo-Intersection-over-Union~(Pseudo-IoU)}: a simple metric that brings more standardized and accurate assignment rule into anchor-free object detection frameworks without any additional computational cost or extra parameters for training and testing, making it possible to further improve anchor-free object detection by utilizing training samples of good quality under effective assignment rules that have been previously applied in anchor-based methods. By incorporating Pseudo-IoU metric into an end-to-end single-stage anchor-free object detection framework, we observe consistent improvements in their performance on general object detection benchmarks such as PASCAL VOC and MSCOCO. Our method (single-model and single-scale) also achieves comparable performance to other recent state-of-the-art anchor-free methods without bells and whistles. Our code is based on mmdetection toolbox and will be made publicly available at

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