SHIELD : An Evaluation Benchmark for Face Spoofing and Forgery Detection with Multimodal Large Language Models

Multimodal large language models (MLLMs) have demonstrated remarkable problem-solving capabilities in various vision fields (e.g., generic object recognition and grounding) based on strong visual semantic representation and language reasoning ability. However, whether MLLMs are sensitive to subtle visual spoof/forged clues and how they perform in the domain of face attack detection (e.g., face spoofing and forgery detection) is still unexplored. In this paper, we introduce a new benchmark, namely SHIELD, to evaluate the ability of MLLMs on face spoofing and forgery detection. Specifically, we design true/false and multiple-choice questions to evaluate multimodal face data in these two face security tasks. For the face anti-spoofing task, we evaluate three different modalities (i.e., RGB, infrared, depth) under four types of presentation attacks (i.e., print attack, replay attack, rigid mask, paper mask). For the face forgery detection task, we evaluate GAN-based and diffusion-based data with both visual and acoustic modalities. Each question is subjected to both zero-shot and few-shot tests under standard and chain of thought (COT) settings. The results indicate that MLLMs hold substantial potential in the face security domain, offering advantages over traditional specific models in terms of interpretability, multimodal flexible reasoning, and joint face spoof and forgery detection. Additionally, we develop a novel Multi-Attribute Chain of Thought (MA-COT) paradigm for describing and judging various task-specific and task-irrelevant attributes of face images, which provides rich task-related knowledge for subtle spoof/forged clue mining. Extensive experiments in separate face anti-spoofing, separate face forgery detection, and joint detection tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MA-COT. The project is available at https$:$//

PDF Abstract


  Add Datasets introduced or used in this paper

Results from the Paper

  Submit results from this paper to get state-of-the-art GitHub badges and help the community compare results to other papers.


No methods listed for this paper. Add relevant methods here