The ability of deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) to learn discriminative spectro-temporal patterns makes them well suited to environmental sound classification. We show that the improved performance stems from the combination of a deep, high-capacity model and an augmented training set: this combination outperforms both the proposed CNN without augmentation and a "shallow" dictionary learning model with augmentation.
End-to-end neural network based approaches to audio modelling are generally outperformed by models trained on high-level data representations. In this paper we present preliminary work that shows the feasibility of training the first layers of a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) model to learn the commonly-used log-scaled mel-spectrogram transformation.
The ConditionaL Neural Network (CLNN) exploits the nature of the temporal sequencing of the sound signal represented in a spectrogram, and its variant the Masked ConditionaL Neural Network (MCLNN) induces the network to learn in frequency bands by embedding a filterbank-like sparseness over the network's links using a binary mask. We have evaluated the MCLNN performance using the Urbansound8k dataset of environmental sounds.