Efficient Global 2D-3D Matching for Camera Localization in a Large-Scale 3D Map

ICCV 2017  ·  Liu Liu, Hongdong Li, Yuchao Dai ·

Given an image of a street scene in a city, this paper develops a new method that can quickly and precisely pinpoint at which location (as well as viewing direction) the image was taken, against a pre-stored large-scale 3D point-cloud map of the city. We adopt the recently developed 2D-3D direct feature matching framework for this task [23,31,32,42-44]. This is a challenging task especially for large-scale problems. As the map size grows bigger, many 3D points in the wider geographical area can be visually very similar-or even identical-causing severe ambiguities in 2D-3D feature matching. The key is to quickly and unambiguously find the correct matches between a query image and the large 3D map. Existing methods solve this problem mainly via comparing individual features' visual similarities in a local and per feature manner, thus only local solutions can be found, inadequate for large-scale applications. In this paper, we introduce a global method which harnesses global contextual information exhibited both within the query image and among all the 3D points in the map. This is achieved by a novel global ranking algorithm, applied to a Markov network built upon the 3D map, which takes account of not only visual similarities between individual 2D-3D matches, but also their global compatibilities (as measured by co-visibility) among all matching pairs found in the scene. Tests on standard benchmark datasets show that our method achieved both higher precision and comparable recall, compared with the state-of-the-art.

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