X-Paste: Revisiting Scalable Copy-Paste for Instance Segmentation using CLIP and StableDiffusion

Copy-Paste is a simple and effective data augmentation strategy for instance segmentation. By randomly pasting object instances onto new background images, it creates new training data for free and significantly boosts the segmentation performance, especially for rare object categories. Although diverse, high-quality object instances used in Copy-Paste result in more performance gain, previous works utilize object instances either from human-annotated instance segmentation datasets or rendered from 3D object models, and both approaches are too expensive to scale up to obtain good diversity. In this paper, we revisit Copy-Paste at scale with the power of newly emerged zero-shot recognition models (e.g., CLIP) and text2image models (e.g., StableDiffusion). We demonstrate for the first time that using a text2image model to generate images or zero-shot recognition model to filter noisily crawled images for different object categories is a feasible way to make Copy-Paste truly scalable. To make such success happen, we design a data acquisition and processing framework, dubbed ``X-Paste", upon which a systematic study is conducted. On the LVIS dataset, X-Paste provides impressive improvements over the strong baseline CenterNet2 with Swin-L as the backbone. Specifically, it archives +2.6 box AP and +2.1 mask AP gains on all classes and even more significant gains with +6.8 box AP, +6.5 mask AP on long-tail classes. Our code and models are available at https://github.com/yoctta/XPaste.

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Task Dataset Model Metric Name Metric Value Global Rank Result Benchmark
Instance Segmentation COCO minival CenterNet2 (Swin-L w/ X-Paste + Copy-Paste) mask AP 48.8 # 28
Open Vocabulary Object Detection LVIS v1.0 X-Paste AP novel-LVIS base training 21.4 # 13
AP novel-Unrestricted open-vocabulary training 22.8 # 4
Instance Segmentation LVIS v1.0 val CenterNet2 (Swin-L w/ X-Paste + Copy-Paste) mask AP 45.4 # 6
mask APr 43.8 # 1
Object Detection LVIS v1.0 val CenterNet2 (Swin-L w/ X-Paste + Copy-Paste) box AP 50.9 # 6
box APr 48.7 # 1