You Only Segment Once: Towards Real-Time Panoptic Segmentation

In this paper, we propose YOSO, a real-time panoptic segmentation framework. YOSO predicts masks via dynamic convolutions between panoptic kernels and image feature maps, in which you only need to segment once for both instance and semantic segmentation tasks. To reduce the computational overhead, we design a feature pyramid aggregator for the feature map extraction, and a separable dynamic decoder for the panoptic kernel generation. The aggregator re-parameterizes interpolation-first modules in a convolution-first way, which significantly speeds up the pipeline without any additional costs. The decoder performs multi-head cross-attention via separable dynamic convolution for better efficiency and accuracy. To the best of our knowledge, YOSO is the first real-time panoptic segmentation framework that delivers competitive performance compared to state-of-the-art models. Specifically, YOSO achieves 46.4 PQ, 45.6 FPS on COCO; 52.5 PQ, 22.6 FPS on Cityscapes; 38.0 PQ, 35.4 FPS on ADE20K; and 34.1 PQ, 7.1 FPS on Mapillary Vistas. Code is available at

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