Robust Deep Ensemble Method for Real-world Image Denoising

8 Jun 2022  ·  Pengju Liu, Hongzhi Zhang, Jinghui Wang, Yuzhi Wang, Dongwei Ren, WangMeng Zuo ·

Recently, deep learning-based image denoising methods have achieved promising performance on test data with the same distribution as training set, where various denoising models based on synthetic or collected real-world training data have been learned. However, when handling real-world noisy images, the denoising performance is still limited. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective Bayesian deep ensemble (BDE) method for real-world image denoising, where several representative deep denoisers pre-trained with various training data settings can be fused to improve robustness. The foundation of BDE is that real-world image noises are highly signal-dependent, and heterogeneous noises in a real-world noisy image can be separately handled by different denoisers. In particular, we take well-trained CBDNet, NBNet, HINet, Uformer and GMSNet into denoiser pool, and a U-Net is adopted to predict pixel-wise weighting maps to fuse these denoisers. Instead of solely learning pixel-wise weighting maps, Bayesian deep learning strategy is introduced to predict weighting uncertainty as well as weighting map, by which prediction variance can be modeled for improving robustness on real-world noisy images. Extensive experiments have shown that real-world noises can be better removed by fusing existing denoisers instead of training a big denoiser with expensive cost. On DND dataset, our BDE achieves +0.28~dB PSNR gain over the state-of-the-art denoising method. Moreover, we note that our BDE denoiser based on different Gaussian noise levels outperforms state-of-the-art CBDNet when applying to real-world noisy images. Furthermore, our BDE can be extended to other image restoration tasks, and achieves +0.30dB, +0.18dB and +0.12dB PSNR gains on benchmark datasets for image deblurring, image deraining and single image super-resolution, respectively.

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