Vehicle and License Plate Recognition with Novel Dataset for Toll Collection

11 Feb 2022  ·  Muhammad Usama, Hafeez Anwar, Abbas Anwar, Saeed Anwar ·

We propose an automatic framework for toll collection, consisting of three steps: vehicle type recognition, license plate localization, and reading. However, each of the three steps becomes non-trivial due to image variations caused by several factors. The traditional vehicle decorations on the front cause variations among vehicles of the same type. These decorations make license plate localization and recognition difficult due to severe background clutter and partial occlusions. Likewise, on most vehicles, specifically trucks, the position of the license plate is not consistent. Lastly, for license plate reading, the variations are induced by non-uniform font styles, sizes, and partially occluded letters and numbers. Our proposed framework takes advantage of both data availability and performance evaluation of the backbone deep learning architectures. We gather a novel dataset, \emph{Diverse Vehicle and License Plates Dataset (DVLPD)}, consisting of 10k images belonging to six vehicle types. Each image is then manually annotated for vehicle type, license plate, and its characters and digits. For each of the three tasks, we evaluate You Only Look Once (YOLO)v2, YOLOv3, YOLOv4, and FasterRCNN. For real-time implementation on a Raspberry Pi, we evaluate the lighter versions of YOLO named Tiny YOLOv3 and Tiny YOLOv4. The best Mean Average Precision (mAP@0.5) of 98.8% for vehicle type recognition, 98.5% for license plate detection, and 98.3% for license plate reading is achieved by YOLOv4, while its lighter version, i.e., Tiny YOLOv4 obtained a mAP of 97.1%, 97.4%, and 93.7% on vehicle type recognition, license plate detection, and license plate reading, respectively. The dataset and the training codes are available at

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