Causal Intersectionality and Dual Form of Gradient Descent for Multimodal Analysis: a Case Study on Hateful Memes

19 Aug 2023  ·  Yosuke Miyanishi, Minh Le Nguyen ·

Amidst the rapid expansion of Machine Learning (ML) and Large Language Models (LLMs), understanding the semantics within their mechanisms is vital. Causal analyses define semantics, while gradient-based methods are essential to eXplainable AI (XAI), interpreting the model's 'black box'. Integrating these, we investigate how a model's mechanisms reveal its causal effect on evidence-based decision-making. Research indicates intersectionality - the combined impact of an individual's demographics - can be framed as an Average Treatment Effect (ATE). This paper demonstrates that hateful meme detection can be viewed as an ATE estimation using intersectionality principles, and summarized gradient-based attention scores highlight distinct behaviors of three Transformer models. We further reveal that LLM Llama-2 can discern the intersectional aspects of the detection through in-context learning and that the learning process could be explained via meta-gradient, a secondary form of gradient. In conclusion, this work furthers the dialogue on Causality and XAI. Our code is available online (see External Resources section).

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