MDTv2: Masked Diffusion Transformer is a Strong Image Synthesizer

Despite its success in image synthesis, we observe that diffusion probabilistic models (DPMs) often lack contextual reasoning ability to learn the relations among object parts in an image, leading to a slow learning process. To solve this issue, we propose a Masked Diffusion Transformer (MDT) that introduces a mask latent modeling scheme to explicitly enhance the DPMs' ability to contextual relation learning among object semantic parts in an image. During training, MDT operates in the latent space to mask certain tokens. Then, an asymmetric diffusion transformer is designed to predict masked tokens from unmasked ones while maintaining the diffusion generation process. Our MDT can reconstruct the full information of an image from its incomplete contextual input, thus enabling it to learn the associated relations among image tokens. We further improve MDT with a more efficient macro network structure and training strategy, named MDTv2. Experimental results show that MDTv2 achieves superior image synthesis performance, e.g., a new SOTA FID score of 1.58 on the ImageNet dataset, and has more than 10x faster learning speed than the previous SOTA DiT. The source code is released at

PDF Abstract ICCV 2023 PDF ICCV 2023 Abstract


Task Dataset Model Metric Name Metric Value Global Rank Result Benchmark
Image Generation ImageNet 256x256 MDTv2 FID 1.58 # 3
Image Generation ImageNet 256x256 MDT FID 1.79 # 7