EndoSLAM Dataset and An Unsupervised Monocular Visual Odometry and Depth Estimation Approach for Endoscopic Videos: Endo-SfMLearner

Deep learning techniques hold promise to develop dense topography reconstruction and pose estimation methods for endoscopic videos. However, currently available datasets do not support effective quantitative benchmarking. In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive endoscopic SLAM dataset consisting of 3D point cloud data for six porcine organs, capsule and standard endoscopy recordings as well as synthetically generated data. A Panda robotic arm, two commercially available capsule endoscopes, two conventional endoscopes with different camera properties, and two high precision 3D scanners were employed to collect data from 8 ex-vivo porcine gastrointestinal (GI)-tract organs. In total, 35 sub-datasets are provided with 6D pose ground truth for the ex-vivo part: 18 sub-dataset for colon, 12 sub-datasets for stomach and 5 sub-datasets for small intestine, while four of these contain polyp-mimicking elevations carried out by an expert gastroenterologist. Synthetic capsule endoscopy frames from GI-tract with both depth and pose annotations are included to facilitate the study of simulation-to-real transfer learning algorithms. Additionally, we propound Endo-SfMLearner, an unsupervised monocular depth and pose estimation method that combines residual networks with spatial attention module in order to dictate the network to focus on distinguishable and highly textured tissue regions. The proposed approach makes use of a brightness-aware photometric loss to improve the robustness under fast frame-to-frame illumination changes. To exemplify the use-case of the EndoSLAM dataset, the performance of Endo-SfMLearner is extensively compared with the state-of-the-art. The codes and the link for the dataset are publicly available at https://github.com/CapsuleEndoscope/EndoSLAM. A video demonstrating the experimental setup and procedure is accessible through https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G_LCe0aWWdQ.

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