The CIFAR-10 dataset (Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, 10 classes) is a subset of the Tiny Images dataset and consists of 60000 32x32 color images. The images are labelled with one of 10 mutually exclusive classes: airplane, automobile (but not truck or pickup truck), bird, cat, deer, dog, frog, horse, ship, and truck (but not pickup truck). There are 6000 images per class with 5000 training and 1000 testing images per class.
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The ImageNet dataset contains 14,197,122 annotated images according to the WordNet hierarchy. Since 2010 the dataset is used in the ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC), a benchmark in image classification and object detection. The publicly released dataset contains a set of manually annotated training images. A set of test images is also released, with the manual annotations withheld. ILSVRC annotations fall into one of two categories: (1) image-level annotation of a binary label for the presence or absence of an object class in the image, e.g., “there are cars in this image” but “there are no tigers,” and (2) object-level annotation of a tight bounding box and class label around an object instance in the image, e.g., “there is a screwdriver centered at position (20,25) with width of 50 pixels and height of 30 pixels”. The ImageNet project does not own the copyright of the images, therefore only thumbnails and URLs of images are provided.
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The MNIST database (Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology database) is a large collection of handwritten digits. It has a training set of 60,000 examples, and a test set of 10,000 examples. It is a subset of a larger NIST Special Database 3 (digits written by employees of the United States Census Bureau) and Special Database 1 (digits written by high school students) which contain monochrome images of handwritten digits. The digits have been size-normalized and centered in a fixed-size image. The original black and white (bilevel) images from NIST were size normalized to fit in a 20x20 pixel box while preserving their aspect ratio. The resulting images contain grey levels as a result of the anti-aliasing technique used by the normalization algorithm. the images were centered in a 28x28 image by computing the center of mass of the pixels, and translating the image so as to position this point at the center of the 28x28 field.
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The CIFAR-100 dataset (Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, 100 classes) is a subset of the Tiny Images dataset and consists of 60000 32x32 color images. The 100 classes in the CIFAR-100 are grouped into 20 superclasses. There are 600 images per class. Each image comes with a "fine" label (the class to which it belongs) and a "coarse" label (the superclass to which it belongs). There are 500 training images and 100 testing images per class.
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Street View House Numbers (SVHN) is a digit classification benchmark dataset that contains 600,000 32×32 RGB images of printed digits (from 0 to 9) cropped from pictures of house number plates. The cropped images are centered in the digit of interest, but nearby digits and other distractors are kept in the image. SVHN has three sets: training, testing sets and an extra set with 530,000 images that are less difficult and can be used for helping with the training process.
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CelebFaces Attributes dataset contains 202,599 face images of the size 178×218 from 10,177 celebrities, each annotated with 40 binary labels indicating facial attributes like hair color, gender and age.
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Fashion-MNIST is a dataset comprising of 28×28 grayscale images of 70,000 fashion products from 10 categories, with 7,000 images per category. The training set has 60,000 images and the test set has 10,000 images. Fashion-MNIST shares the same image size, data format and the structure of training and testing splits with the original MNIST.
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The Caltech-UCSD Birds-200-2011 (CUB-200-2011) dataset is the most widely-used dataset for fine-grained visual categorization task. It contains 11,788 images of 200 subcategories belonging to birds, 5,994 for training and 5,794 for testing. Each image has detailed annotations: 1 subcategory label, 15 part locations, 312 binary attributes and 1 bounding box. The textual information comes from Reed et al.. They expand the CUB-200-2011 dataset by collecting fine-grained natural language descriptions. Ten single-sentence descriptions are collected for each image. The natural language descriptions are collected through the Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) platform, and are required at least 10 words, without any information of subcategories and actions.
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The Places dataset is proposed for scene recognition and contains more than 2.5 million images covering more than 205 scene categories with more than 5,000 images per category.
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The STL-10 is an image dataset derived from ImageNet and popularly used to evaluate algorithms of unsupervised feature learning or self-taught learning. Besides 100,000 unlabeled images, it contains 13,000 labeled images from 10 object classes (such as birds, cats, trucks), among which 5,000 images are partitioned for training while the remaining 8,000 images for testing. All the images are color images with 96×96 pixels in size.
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Oxford 102 Flower is an image classification dataset consisting of 102 flower categories. The flowers chosen to be flower commonly occurring in the United Kingdom. Each class consists of between 40 and 258 images.
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Tiny ImageNet contains 100000 images of 200 classes (500 for each class) downsized to 64×64 colored images. Each class has 500 training images, 50 validation images and 50 test images.
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The Places205 dataset is a large-scale scene-centric dataset with 205 common scene categories. The training dataset contains around 2,500,000 images from these categories. In the training set, each scene category has the minimum 5,000 and maximum 15,000 images. The validation set contains 100 images per category (a total of 20,500 images), and the testing set includes 200 images per category (a total of 41,000 images).
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The Stanford Cars dataset consists of 196 classes of cars with a total of 16,185 images, taken from the rear. The data is divided into almost a 50-50 train/test split with 8,144 training images and 8,041 testing images. Categories are typically at the level of Make, Model, Year. The images are 360×240.
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Caltech-256 is an object recognition dataset containing 30,607 real-world images, of different sizes, spanning 257 classes (256 object classes and an additional clutter class). Each class is represented by at least 80 images. The dataset is a superset of the Caltech-101 dataset.
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The Describable Textures Dataset (DTD) contains 5640 texture images in the wild. They are annotated with human-centric attributes inspired by the perceptual properties of textures.
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The Food-101 dataset consists of 101 food categories with 750 training and 250 test images per category, making a total of 101k images. The labels for the test images have been manually cleaned, while the training set contains some noise.
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The iNaturalist 2017 dataset (iNat) contains 675,170 training and validation images from 5,089 natural fine-grained categories. Those categories belong to 13 super-categories including Plantae (Plant), Insecta (Insect), Aves (Bird), Mammalia (Mammal), and so on. The iNat dataset is highly imbalanced with dramatically different number of images per category. For example, the largest super-category “Plantae (Plant)” has 196,613 images from 2,101 categories; whereas the smallest super-category “Protozoa” only has 381 images from 4 categories.
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The PASCAL Visual Object Classes (VOC) 2012 dataset contains 20 object categories including vehicles, household, animals, and other: aeroplane, bicycle, boat, bus, car, motorbike, train, bottle, chair, dining table, potted plant, sofa, TV/monitor, bird, cat, cow, dog, horse, sheep, and person. Each image in this dataset has pixel-level segmentation annotations, bounding box annotations, and object class annotations. This dataset has been widely used as a benchmark for object detection, semantic segmentation, and classification tasks. The PASCAL VOC dataset is split into three subsets: 1,464 images for training, 1,449 images for validation and a private testing set.
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The tieredImageNet dataset is a larger subset of ILSVRC-12 with 608 classes (779,165 images) grouped into 34 higher-level nodes in the ImageNet human-curated hierarchy. This set of nodes is partitioned into 20, 6, and 8 disjoint sets of training, validation, and testing nodes, and the corresponding classes form the respective meta-sets. As argued in Ren et al. (2018), this split near the root of the ImageNet hierarchy results in a more challenging, yet realistic regime with test classes that are less similar to training classes.
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FGVC-Aircraft contains 10,200 images of aircraft, with 100 images for each of 102 different aircraft model variants, most of which are airplanes. The (main) aircraft in each image is annotated with a tight bounding box and a hierarchical airplane model label. Aircraft models are organized in a four-levels hierarchy. The four levels, from finer to coarser, are:
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Clothing1M contains 1M clothing images in 14 classes. It is a dataset with noisy labels, since the data is collected from several online shopping websites and include many mislabelled samples. This dataset also contains 50k, 14k, and 10k images with clean labels for training, validation, and testing, respectively.
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EMNIST (extended MNIST) has 4 times more data than MNIST. It is a set of handwritten digits with a 28 x 28 format.
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NAS-Bench-201 is a benchmark (and search space) for neural architecture search. Each architecture consists of a predefined skeleton with a stack of the searched cell. In this way, architecture search is transformed into the problem of searching a good cell.
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The Extended Yale B database contains 2414 frontal-face images with size 192×168 over 38 subjects and about 64 images per subject. The images were captured under different lighting conditions and various facial expressions.
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YFCC100M is a that dataset contains a total of 100 million media objects, of which approximately 99.2 million are photos and 0.8 million are videos, all of which carry a Creative Commons license. Each media object in the dataset is represented by several pieces of metadata, e.g. Flickr identifier, owner name, camera, title, tags, geo, media source. The collection provides a comprehensive snapshot of how photos and videos were taken, described, and shared over the years, from the inception of Flickr in 2004 until early 2014.
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Eurosat is a dataset and deep learning benchmark for land use and land cover classification. The dataset is based on Sentinel-2 satellite images covering 13 spectral bands and consisting out of 10 classes with in total 27,000 labeled and geo-referenced images.
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Datasets drive vision progress, yet existing driving datasets are impoverished in terms of visual content and supported tasks to study multitask learning for autonomous driving. Researchers are usually constrained to study a small set of problems on one dataset, while real-world computer vision applications require performing tasks of various complexities. We construct BDD100K, the largest driving video dataset with 100K videos and 10 tasks to evaluate the exciting progress of image recognition algorithms on autonomous driving. The dataset possesses geographic, environmental, and weather diversity, which is useful for training models that are less likely to be surprised by new conditions. Based on this diverse dataset, we build a benchmark for heterogeneous multitask learning and study how to solve the tasks together. Our experiments show that special training strategies are needed for existing models to perform such heterogeneous tasks. BDD100K opens the door for future studies in thi
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LabelMe database is a large collection of images with ground truth labels for object detection and recognition. The annotations come from two different sources, including the LabelMe online annotation tool.
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Stanford Online Products (SOP) dataset has 22,634 classes with 120,053 product images. The first 11,318 classes (59,551 images) are split for training and the other 11,316 (60,502 images) classes are used for testing
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Oxford5K is the Oxford Buildings Dataset, which contains 5062 images collected from Flickr. It offers a set of 55 queries for 11 landmark buildings, five for each landmark.
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The WebVision dataset is designed to facilitate the research on learning visual representation from noisy web data. It is a large scale web images dataset that contains more than 2.4 million of images crawled from the Flickr website and Google Images search.
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PASCAL VOC 2007 is a dataset for image recognition. The twenty object classes that have been selected are:
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The image dataset TinyImages contains 80 million images of size 32×32 collected from the Internet, crawling the words in WordNet.
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CINIC-10 is a dataset for image classification. It has a total of 270,000 images, 4.5 times that of CIFAR-10. It is constructed from two different sources: ImageNet and CIFAR-10. Specifically, it was compiled as a bridge between CIFAR-10 and ImageNet. It is split into three equal subsets - train, validation, and test - each of which contain 90,000 images.
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The smallNORB dataset is a datset for 3D object recognition from shape. It contains images of 50 toys belonging to 5 generic categories: four-legged animals, human figures, airplanes, trucks, and cars. The objects were imaged by two cameras under 6 lighting conditions, 9 elevations (30 to 70 degrees every 5 degrees), and 18 azimuths (0 to 340 every 20 degrees). The training set is composed of 5 instances of each category (instances 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9), and the test set of the remaining 5 instances (instances 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5).
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ImageNet-Sketch data set consists of 50000 images, 50 images for each of the 1000 ImageNet classes. The data set is constructed with Google Image queries "sketch of ", where is the standard class name. Only within the "black and white" color scheme is searched. 100 images are initially queried for every class, and the pulled images are cleaned by deleting the irrelevant images and images that are for similar but different classes. For some classes, there are less than 50 images after manually cleaning, and then the data set is augmented by flipping and rotating the images.
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JFT-300M is an internal Google dataset used for training image classification models. Images are labeled using an algorithm that uses complex mixture of raw web signals, connections between web-pages and user feedback. This results in over one billion labels for the 300M images (a single image can have multiple labels). Of the billion image labels, approximately 375M are selected via an algorithm that aims to maximize label precision of selected images.
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The Meta-Dataset benchmark is a large few-shot learning benchmark and consists of multiple datasets of different data distributions. It does not restrict few-shot tasks to have fixed ways and shots, thus representing a more realistic scenario. It consists of 10 datasets from diverse domains:
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The Stylized-ImageNet dataset is created by removing local texture cues in ImageNet while retaining global shape information on natural images via AdaIN style transfer. This nudges CNNs towards learning more about shapes and less about local textures.
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Imagenet32 is a huge dataset made up of small images called the down-sampled version of Imagenet. Imagenet32 is composed of 1,281,167 training data and 50,000 test data with 1,000 labels.
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ObjectNet is a test set of images collected directly using crowd-sourcing. ObjectNet is unique as the objects are captured at unusual poses in cluttered, natural scenes, which can severely degrade recognition performance. There are 50,000 images in the test set which controls for rotation, background and viewpoint. There are 313 object classes with 113 overlapping ImageNet.
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The RVL-CDIP dataset consists of scanned document images belonging to 16 classes such as letter, form, email, resume, memo, etc. The dataset has 320,000 training, 40,000 validation and 40,000 test images. The images are characterized by low quality, noise, and low resolution, typically 100 dpi.
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Kuzushiji-MNIST is a drop-in replacement for the MNIST dataset (28x28 grayscale, 70,000 images). Since MNIST restricts us to 10 classes, the authors chose one character to represent each of the 10 rows of Hiragana when creating Kuzushiji-MNIST. Kuzushiji is a Japanese cursive writing style.
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Functional Map of the World (fMoW) is a dataset that aims to inspire the development of machine learning models capable of predicting the functional purpose of buildings and land use from temporal sequences of satellite images and a rich set of metadata features.
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ChestX-ray8 is a medical imaging dataset which comprises 108,948 frontal-view X-ray images of 32,717 (collected from the year of 1992 to 2015) unique patients with the text-mined eight common disease labels, mined from the text radiological reports via NLP techniques.
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Consists of more than 210k videos for 310 audio classes.
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